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Francesco Lombardi is an assistant professor at TU Delft, working on computational methods to support the practical realisation of the energy transition across scales, from districts to countries. He holds a PhD in Energy Engineering from Politecnico di Milano and has been a visiting researcher at ETH Zurich and KU Leuven.


Media coverage of the article on the “diversity of options to eliminate fossil fuels and reach carbon-neutrality across the entire European energy system” in different languages:


His research focuses on developing optimisation methods applied to energy system models that generate a wide range of feasible alternatives near the optimum, from which stakeholders can realise trade-offs and identify practically viable consensus solutions. An example is the original SPORES algorithm, now implemented in the open-source energy modelling framework Calliope, which he contributes to develop.

He also leads the development of the open-source RAMP software for the stochastic simulation of any user-driven energy demand profiles. This data is essential wherever metered data does not exist, such as when designing systems for newly-built districts or when looking at future electric-vehicle fleets. Used by dozens of institutions, RAMP is co-funded by industrial and academic partners.

Currently, he leads the energy system design tasks in the SEEDS and WindSPORES projects, both of which are grounded in and further develop the SPORES method and apply it to real-world policy-relevant questions. He also works on other European projects and on self-established projects with industrial and academic partners looking at urban energy transition options. He is part of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative, promoting openness and transparency in energy system modelling.  He is also a member of the cross-faculty PowerWeb institute, for which he coordinates the monthly lectures, and of the Urban Energy Institute, for which he leads the theme ‘Transforming Cities’.

Key publications

  • Lombardi, B. Pickering, E. Colombo, S. Pfenninger, Policy decision support for renewables deployment through spatially explicit practically optimal alternatives, Joule (Oct 2020),
  • Pickering, F. Lombardi, S. Pfenninger, Diversity of options to eliminate fossil fuels and reach carbon neutrality across the entire European energy system, Joule (Jun 2022),
  • Lombardi, M.V. Rocco, E. Colombo, A multi-layer energy modelling methodology to assess the impact of heat-electricity integration strategies: the case of the residential cooking sector in Italy, Energy (Mar 2019),
  • Pavičević, A. Mangipinto, W. Nijs, F. Lombardi, K. Kavvadias, J.P. Jimenez Navarro, E. Colombo, S. Quoilin, The potential of sector coupling in future European energy systems: Soft linking between the Dispa-SET and JRC-EU-TIMES models, Applied Energy (Jun 2020),
  • Lombardi, S. Balderrama, S. Quoilin, E. Colombo, Generating high-resolution multi-energy load profiles for remote areas with an open-source stochastic model, Energy (Jun 2019),
  • Mangipinto, F. Lombardi, F.D. Sanvito, M. Pavičević, S. Quoilin, E. Colombo, Impact of mass-scale deployment of electric vehicles and benefits of smart charging across all European countries, Applied Energy (Apr 2022),


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