3-D Virtual Seismology

Joeri Brackenhoff, Jan Thorbecke, Kees Wapenaar

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We create virtual sources and receivers in a 3-D subsurface using the previously derived single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation. We employ Green's functions and focusing functions that are obtained using reflection data at the Earth's surface, a macrovelocity model, and the Marchenko method. The homogeneous Green's function is Green's function superposed with its time-reversal. Unlike the classical homogeneous Green's function representation, our approach requires no receivers on an enclosing boundary; however, it does require the source signal to be symmetric in time. We demonstrate that, in 3-D, the single-sided representation is an improvement over the classical representation by applying the representations to numerical data. We retrieve responses to virtual point sources with an isotropic and with a double-couple radiation pattern and compare the results to a directly modeled reference result. We also demonstrate the application of the single-sided representation for retrieving the response to a virtual rupture that consists of a superposition of double-couple point sources. This is achieved by obtaining the homogeneous Green's function for each source separately before they are transformed to the causal Green's function, time-shifted, and superposed. The single-sided representation is also used to monitor the complete wavefield that is caused by a numerically modeled rupture. However, the source signal of an actual rupture is not symmetric in time, and the single-sided representation can, therefore, only be used to obtain the causal Green's function. This approach leaves artifacts in the final result; however, these artifacts are limited in space and time.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • 3-D Marchenko
  • virtual seismology
  • wavefield monitoring


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