Wireless sensor nodes in battery-powered internet-of-things (loT)
applications require a stable on-chip frequency reference with low
energy (<10 pJ / cycle) and high frequency stability (below ±300ppm).
CMOS RC frequency references are promising due to their low-cost
integration and high energy efficiency  –. Conventional RC
references, however, achieve only moderate accuracy (a few %) due to the
large temperature coefficient (TC) of on-chip resistors .
First-order TC compensation can be achieved by combining resistors with
complementary TCs , . Although this is energy efficient (<6 pJ /
cycle), it only partially compensates for the resistors’ high-order
TCs, limiting the resulting accuracy to about ±500 ppm. Better accuracy (±100
ppm ) can be achieved by using the output of a digital temperature
sensor (TS) to perform a polynomial correction of the phase-shift (μp,T) of an RC filter (Fig. 31.2.1). Alternatively, the phase-shifts (μp. and μN) of two RC filters with complementary TCs can be linearized (Tp. and T
) and combined in the digital domain. Such dual-RC frequency references can also achieve good accuracy (±200 ppm ). However, both architectures employ an analog phase-domain ΔΣ modulator (Φ−ΔΣM) for each RC filter, which consumes significant energy (25pJ/cycle  and 107pJ/ cycle ) and area (0.3mm2. and 1.65mm2).
|Name||Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference|
|Conference||2021 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC 2021|
|Period||13/02/21 → 22/02/21|