4-D Echo-Particle Image Velocimetry in a Left Ventricular Phantom

Jason Voorneveld*, Hicham Saaid, Christiaan Schinkel, Nikola Radeljic, Boris Lippe, Frank J.H. Gijsen, Antonius F.W. van der Steen, Nico de Jong, Tom Claessens, Hendrik J. Vos, Sasa Kenjeres, Johan G. Bosch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
116 Downloads (Pure)


Left ventricular (LV) blood flow is an inherently complex time-varying 3-D phenomenon, where 2-D quantification often ignores the effect of out-of-plane motion. In this study, we describe high frame rate 4-D echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) using a prototype matrix transesophageal transducer and a dynamic LV phantom for testing the accuracy of echo-PIV in the presence of complex flow patterns. Optical time-resolved tomographic PIV (tomo-PIV) was used as a reference standard for comparison. Echo-PIV and tomo-PIV agreed on the general profile of the LV flow patterns, but echo-PIV smoothed out the smaller flow structures. Echo-PIV also underestimated the flow rates at greater imaging depths, where the PIV kernel size and transducer point spread function were large relative to the velocity gradients. We demonstrate that 4-D echo-PIV could be performed in just four heart cycles, which would require only a short breath-hold, providing promising results. However, methods for resolving high velocity gradients in regions of poor spatial resolution are required before clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-817
Number of pages13
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • 4-D echo-PIV
  • 4-D ultrasound
  • Echo particle image velocimetry
  • High frame rate ultrasound
  • Left ventricle
  • Tomographic PIV
  • Ultrafast ultrasound
  • Ultrasound image velocimetry
  • Vector flow imaging
  • Volumetric flow


Dive into the research topics of '4-D Echo-Particle Image Velocimetry in a Left Ventricular Phantom'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this