4-D Echo-Particle Image Velocimetry in a Left Ventricular Phantom

Jason Voorneveld, Hicham Saaid, Christiaan Schinkel, Nikola Radeljic, Boris Lippe, Frank J.H. Gijsen, Antonius F.W. van der Steen, Nico de Jong, Tom Claessens, Hendrik J. Vos, Sasa Kenjeres, Johan G. Bosch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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Left ventricular (LV) blood flow is an inherently complex time-varying 3-D phenomenon, where 2-D quantification often ignores the effect of out-of-plane motion. In this study, we describe high frame rate 4-D echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) using a prototype matrix transesophageal transducer and a dynamic LV phantom for testing the accuracy of echo-PIV in the presence of complex flow patterns. Optical time-resolved tomographic PIV (tomo-PIV) was used as a reference standard for comparison. Echo-PIV and tomo-PIV agreed on the general profile of the LV flow patterns, but echo-PIV smoothed out the smaller flow structures. Echo-PIV also underestimated the flow rates at greater imaging depths, where the PIV kernel size and transducer point spread function were large relative to the velocity gradients. We demonstrate that 4-D echo-PIV could be performed in just four heart cycles, which would require only a short breath-hold, providing promising results. However, methods for resolving high velocity gradients in regions of poor spatial resolution are required before clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-817
Number of pages13
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • 4-D echo-PIV
  • 4-D ultrasound
  • Echo particle image velocimetry
  • High frame rate ultrasound
  • Left ventricle
  • Tomographic PIV
  • Ultrafast ultrasound
  • Ultrasound image velocimetry
  • Vector flow imaging
  • Volumetric flow

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