4D Flow Patterns and Relative Pressure Distribution in a Left Ventricle Model by Shake-the-Box and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis

Xiaolin Wu*, Hicham Saaid, Jason Voorneveld, Tom Claessens, Jos J.M. Westenberg, Nico de Jong, Johan G. Bosch, Saša Kenjereš

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Purpose: Intraventricular blood flow dynamics are associated with cardiac function. Accurate, noninvasive, and easy assessments of hemodynamic quantities (such as velocity, vortex, and pressure) could be an important addition to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases. However, the complex time-varying flow brings many challenges to the existing noninvasive image-based hemodynamic assessments. The development of reliable techniques and analysis tools is essential for the application of hemodynamic biomarkers in clinical practice. Methods: In this study, a time-resolved particle tracking method, Shake-the-Box, was applied to reconstruct the flow in a realistic left ventricle (LV) silicone model with biological valves. Based on the obtained velocity, 4D pressure field was calculated using a Poisson equation-based pressure solver. Furthermore, flow analysis by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the 4D velocity field has been performed. Results: As a result of the Shake-the-Box algorithm, we have extracted: (i) particle positions, (ii) particle tracks, and finally, (iii) 4D velocity fields. From the latter, the temporal evolution of the 3D pressure field during the full cardiac cycle was obtained. The obtained maximal pressure difference extracted along the base-to-apex was about 2.7 mmHg, which is in good agreement with those reported in vivo. The POD analysis results showed a clear picture of different scale of vortices in the pulsatile LV flow, together with their time-varying information and corresponding kinetic energy content. To reconstruct 95% of the kinetic energy of the LV flow, only the first six POD modes would be required, leading to significant data reduction. Conclusions: This work demonstrated Shake-the-Box is a promising technique to accurately reconstruct the left ventricle flow field in vitro. The good spatial and temporal resolutions of the velocity measurements enabled a 4D reconstruction of the pressure field in the left ventricle. The application of POD analysis showed its potential in reducing the complexity of the high-resolution left ventricle flow measurements. For future work, image analysis, multi-modality flow assessments, and the development of new flow-derived biomarkers can benefit from fast and data-reducing POD analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-754
JournalCardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Hemodynamics
  • Left ventricle
  • Particle tracking
  • Pressure
  • Proper orthogonal decomposition
  • Shake-the-Box


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