4d open spatial information infrastructure: Participatory urban plan monitoring in indonesian cities

A. Indrajit

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

179 Downloads (Pure)


An urban plan contains a set of agreements from all stakeholders that may directly impact livelihood. However, many cities show a ‘plan and forget’ behavior by not monitoring and evaluating their urban plans. While local citizens are often excluded after the urban plan is enacted. Gibbs (2016) warned of the risk of this behavior by saying, “local communities are given the impression that the risk is being managed, when in fact it is not.” Therefore, as the affected party, local citizens should be included in the development of the plan and the monitoring, evaluating, and reporting of urban plan implementation. However, in reality, a collaboration between authorities and local citizens in monitoring land development is rare. In some cases, cities do not share urban plans with society. This situation motivates this research by developing a framework to make urban plans interoperable and accessible to the broader community by determining four particular objectives: (i) to identify what type and specification of spatial data are required to support participatory monitoring of the implementation of the urban plan; (ii) to design information interoperability of land-use plans for participatory urban plan monitoring; (iii) to construct spatial data governance that allows two-way information flows between stakeholders in participatory urban plan monitoring; and (iv) to develop a prototype for PUPM that enables two-way information flows and multidimensional spatial representation to support participatory urban plan monitoring. This study was built upon the four functions of land management: land tenure, land valuation, land-use planning, and land development. Information interoperability is essential for allowing interaction between these functions, particularly in PUPM. This study supports the revision of the ISO 19152 on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) by developing Spatial Plan Information Package (SP Information Package) for accommodating information from land-use planning and land development planning. In recent years, cities have adopted the digital twin concept to represent physical urban objects by exploiting 3D spatial information for improving the spatial thinking of all stakeholders. A common interest of urban planners in using an updated 3D spatial information for Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs) was depicted for further analysis. Therefore, this study proposes the digital triplets concept for representing the legal situation of the land in four-dimensional representation (3D geometry with temporal aspect managed as an attribute). This thesis presents the development of a prototype using 4D spatial representation for supporting PUPM. The prototype enables two-way information flows between urban planners and citizens to enable the co-production of urban information. This study also proposes user-centered and data governance aspects in a holistic approach to implementing the proposed standard and technology, particularly for sharing RRRs with all stakeholders through an Open Spatial Information Infrastructure. The result of this study is implemented with actual urban plan data in the two biggest Indonesian cities: Jakarta and Bandung City. A usability test was conducted to assess the implementation of participatory urban plan monitoring using RRRs. The result shows that our approach can accommodate RRRs from the spatial planning process, providing a complete overview of the legal situation of the land or urban space to all stakeholders to monitor the implementation of urban plans to support the Sustainable Development Goals: ‘plan and progress’.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • van Oosterom, P.J.M., Supervisor
  • van Loenen, B., Supervisor
Award date22 Jun 2021
Print ISBNs978-94-6366-433-2
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

A+BE | Architecture and the Built Environment (2021)


  • open spatial information infrastructure
  • urban plan
  • participatory monitoring
  • information interoperability
  • multidimensional representation


Dive into the research topics of '4d open spatial information infrastructure: Participatory urban plan monitoring in indonesian cities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this