A 16 MHz CMOS RC Frequency Reference With ±90 ppm Inaccuracy From -45 °C to 85 °C

Cagri Gurleyuk, Sining Pan, Kofi A.A. Makinwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Downloads (Pure)


This article presents a 16-MHz RC frequency reference implemented in a standard 180-nm CMOS process. It consists of a frequency-locked loop (FLL) in which the output frequency of a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) is locked to the frequency-phase characteristic of a Wien bridge RC filter. Since it is made from on-chip resistors and capacitors, the filter's characteristic is temperature dependent. To compensate for this, the control signal of the DCO is derived by digitizing the filter's output phase and combining it with the digital output of a Wheatstone bridge temperature sensor. After a two-point trim, this digital temperature compensation scheme achieves an inaccuracy of ±90 ppm from -45 °C to 85 °C. The frequency reference draws 220 $\mu \text{A}$ from a 1.8-V supply, with a supply sensitivity of 0.12%/V and a 320-ppb Allan Deviation floor for a 10-s stride.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2429-2437
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Bandwidth
  • CMOS
  • digital frequency-locked loop (FLL)
  • digitally controlled oscillator (DCO)
  • Frequency control
  • Frequency locked loops
  • integrated frequency reference
  • RC.
  • Resistors
  • Sensitivity
  • System-on-chip
  • Temperature sensors


Dive into the research topics of 'A 16 MHz CMOS RC Frequency Reference With ±90 ppm Inaccuracy From -45 °C to 85 °C'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this