A 28-W, -102.2-dB THD+N Class-D Amplifier Using a Hybrid ΔΣM-PWM Scheme

Shoubhik Karmakar, Huajun Zhang, Robert van Veldhoven, Lucien J. Breems, Marco Berkhout, Qinwen Fan, Kofi A.A. Makinwa

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This article presents a 28-W class-D amplifier for automotive applications. The combination of a high switching frequency and a hybrid multibit Δ Σ M-PWM scheme results in high linearity over a wide range of output power, as well as low AM-band EMI. As a result, only a small (150-kHz cutoff frequency), and thus low-cost, LC filter is needed to meet the CISPR-25 EMI average limit (150 kHz-30 MHz) with 10-dB margin. At 28-W output power, the proposed amplifier achieves 91% efficiency while driving a 4- Ω load from a 14.4-V supply. It attains a peak THD+N of 0.00077% (-102.2 dB) for a 1-kHz input signal.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9207737
Pages (from-to)3146-3156
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • audio power amplifier
  • class-D amplifier
  • electro-magnetic interference (EMI)
  • hybrid
  • pulsewidth modulation (PWM)
  • ΔΣM

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