A 6.6-μW Wheatstone-Bridge Temperature Sensor for Biomedical Applications

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This letter presents a compact, energy-efficient, and low-power Wheatstone-bridge temperature sensor for biomedical applications. To maximize sensitivity and reduce power dissipation, the sensor employs a high-resistance (600 kΩ ) bridge that consists of resistors with positive (silicided-poly) and negative ( n -poly) temperature coefficients. Resistor spread is then mitigated by trimming the n -poly arms with a 12-bit DAC, which consists of a 5-bit series DAC whose LSB is trimmed by a 7-bit PWM generator. The bridge is readout by a second-order delta-sigma modulator, which dynamically balances the bridge by tuning the resistance of the silicided-poly arms via a 1-bit series DAC. As a result, the modulator's bitstream average is an accurate and near-linear function of temperature, which does not require further correction in the digital domain. Fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS technology, the sensor occupies 0.12 mm2. After a 1-point trim, it achieves +0.2 °C/-0.1 °C ( 3σ ) inaccuracy in a ±10 °C range around body temperature (37.5 °C). It consumes 6.6 μW from a 1.6-V supply, and achieves 200- μK resolution in a 40-ms conversion time, which corresponds to a state-of-the-art resolution FoM of 11 fJ K2. Duty cycling the sensor results in even lower average power: 700 nW at 10 conversions/s.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9174947
Pages (from-to)334-337
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Biomedical
  • energy efficiency
  • low power
  • temperature sensor
  • trimming


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