A Comparative Study of (Cd,Zn)S Buffer Layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Panels Fabricated by Chemical Bath and Surface Deposition Methods

Dowon Bae

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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Scale-up to large-area Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) solar panels is proving to be much more complicated than expected. Particularly, the non-vacuum wet-chemical buffer layer formation step has remained a challenge and has acted as a bottleneck in industrial implementations for mass-production. This technical note deals with the comparative analysis of the impact on different methodologies for the buffer layer formation on CIGS solar panels. Cd(1-x)ZnxS (Cd, Zn)S) thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), and chemical surface deposition (CSD) for 24-inch (37 cm x 47 cm) patterned CIGS solar panel applications. Buffer layers deposited by the CBD method showed a higher Zn addition level and transmittance than those prepared by the CSD technique due to the predominant cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism, and this induced a difference in the solar cell performance, consequently. The CIGS panels with (Cd, Zn)S buffer layer formed by the CBD method showed a 0.5% point higher conversion efficiency than that of panels with a conventional CdS buffer layer, owing to the increased current density and open-circuit voltage. The samples with the CSD (Cd, Zn)S buffer layer also increased the conversion efficiency with 0.3% point than conventional panels, but mainly due to the increased fill factor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1622
Number of pages12
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • (Cd, Zn)S
  • Chalcogenides
  • Chemical bath deposition
  • Chemical surface deposition
  • Cu(In, Ga)Se
  • Solar cell


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  • LEaDing Fellows

    Gutierrez, A., Dols Perez, A., Bae, D., Sahoo, H., Wang, W., Lam, K. L., Raimondo, A., Steffelbauer, D. B., Lesne, E. L., Ragno, E., Amador, G. J., Šiaudinyte, L., Sand, M., Robinson Garcia, N., Abil, Z., Purkarthofer, E., Noardo, F., Tasić, J. K., Marin, L., Angeloni, L., loddo, M., Stockill, R. H. J., Franklin, S. W., Hensen, B. J., Dennis, M. J., Afroza Islam, S. T., Kim, T., Manzaneque Garcia, T., Tiringer, U., Marques Penha, F., Esteban Jurado, C., Timmermans, E., McCrum, I. T., Pool, F., Forn-Cuní, G., Will, G., Barrett, H. E., Everett, J. A. C., Kostenzer, J., Luksenburg, J., Hirvasniemi, J., Desai, J., Ruibal, P., Albury, N. J., March, R., Eichengreen, A., Muok, A. R., Cochrane, A., Ravesteijn, B., Riumalló Herl, C. J., Meeusen, C., Biaggi, C., Granger, C., Cecil, C., Fosch Villaronga, E., Sánchez López, E. S., Loehrer, E., da Costa Gonçalves, F., Giardina, F., Wu, H., Gleitz, H. & Khatri, I.


    Project: Research

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