A Complete DC Trolleybus Grid Model With Bilateral Connections, Feeder Cables, and Bus Auxiliaries

Ibrahim Diab*, Alice Saffirio, Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli, Abhishek Singh Tomar, Pavol Bauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


This paper offers a complete and verified model of DC trolleybus grids and examines the effect of the common modelling assumptions made in literature by using simulations, as well as bus and substation measurements from the grid of Arnhem, the Netherlands. An equivalent model for the overhead line impedance is offered taking into account the single line impedance, the supply and return lines, and the parallel connections between them. A case study shows that the feeder cables from the substations to the sections can be ignored, but only for certain substation power and feeder-line length ranges. On the other hand, the often-neglected regenerative braking, bus auxiliaries load, bilateral connections, and the exact nominal substation voltage are found to be crucial for the correct modelling of a trolleybus grid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19030 - 19041
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • DC power systems
  • electrical transportation
  • public transport
  • regenerative braking
  • trolleybus


Dive into the research topics of 'A Complete DC Trolleybus Grid Model With Bilateral Connections, Feeder Cables, and Bus Auxiliaries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this