A Continuously Updated Package-Degradation Model reflecting Thermomechanical Changes at Different Thermo-Oxidative Stages of Moulding Compound

A.S. Inamdar, Michiel van Soestbergen, Amar Mavinkurve, W.D. van Driel, Kouchi Zhang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientific

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Moulding compounds used for encapsulating electronics typically occupy a large portion of package volume and are most exposed to the external environment. Under harsh conditions such as high temperature, humidity, and mechanical vibrations, constituent materials of electronic components degrade, resulting in a change in their thermal, mechanical, electrical, and chemical behaviour. High-temperature ageing of electronic packages causes the oxidation of epoxy moulding compounds (EMC), forming a layer exhibiting significantly different thermomechanical properties. This reflects in the modified mechanical behaviour of the entire package, which accelerates certain failure modes and affects component reliability. Thus, it is crucial to consider gradual degenerative changes in EMC for a more accurate estimation of the component lifetime. This paper proposes a three-step modelling approach to replicate thermo-chemical changes in package encapsulation. A parametric geometry of a test package was incorporated with the ageing stage-dependent changes in thermomechanical properties of the oxidized layer. The mechanical behaviour of oxidized EMC at multiple stages of thermal ageing (at 150°C for up to 3000 hours) was first experimentally characterized and then validated using warpage measurements on thermally aged test packages and Finite Element (FE) simulations. Lastly, a trend-based interpolation of material model parameters for intermediate stages of ageing was followed, and a continuously updated degradation model (physics-based Digital Twin) was achieved. The proposed model is capable of reproducing degraded stages of the test package under thermal ageing along with its modified thermomechanical behaviour. Its limitations and significance in the domain of health monitoring of microelectronics are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 24th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2023
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9798350345971
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

Name2023 24th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Epoxy moulding compounds
  • thermal ageing
  • oxidation
  • experimental characterization
  • mechanical behavioural modelling
  • degradation model
  • parametric geometry
  • finite element analysis
  • package warpage

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