A Cryo-CMOS DAC-based 40 Gb/s PAM4 Wireline Transmitter for Quantum Computing Applications

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Abstract

State-of-the-art quantum computers already comprise hundreds of cryogenic quantum bits (qubits), and prototypes with over 10k qubits are currently being developed. Such large-scale systems require local cryogenic electronics for qubit control and readout, leaving the digital controllers for algorithm execution and quantum error correction (QEC) at room temperature due to the limited cryogenic cooling budget. The entire process, including qubit readout, data transmission, QEC, and algorithm execution, should be completed well within the qubit decoherence time, thus requiring a low-power high-speed communication link between the cryogenic quantum processor and classical processor located at room temperature. To this end, this paper presents the first cryo-CMOS high-speed 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) wireline transmitter. Thanks to a power-efficient serializing architecture driving a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the 40-nm CMOS chip achieves a data rate of 40 Gb/s PAM4 with an efficiency of 2.46pJ/b and a ratio of level mismatch (RLM) of 97.8% at 4.2 K. While demonstrating an energy efficiency comparable to state-of-the-art transmitters in more advanced CMOS nodes, the extremely wide temperature operating range (4.2 K - 300 K) will enable future large-scale quantum computers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, RFIC 2023
EditorsJennifer Kitchen, Steven Turner
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Pages257-260
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9798350321227
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event2023 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, RFIC 2023 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 11 Jun 202313 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameDigest of Papers - IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium
Volume2023-June
ISSN (Print)1529-2517

Conference

Conference2023 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, RFIC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego
Period11/06/2313/06/23

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.

Keywords

  • Cryo-CMOS
  • high-speed DAC
  • quantum computing ICs
  • wireline transmitter

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