In this paper we propose a solution to the need for a fast particle transport algorithm in Online Adaptive Proton Therapy capable of cheaply, but accurately computing the changes in patient dose metrics as a result of changes in the system parameters. We obtain the proton phase-space density through the product of the numerical solution to the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation and the analytical solution to the Fermi-Eyges equation. Moreover, a corresponding adjoint system was derived and solved for the adjoint flux. The proton phase-space density together with the adjoint flux and the metric (chosen as the energy deposited by the beam in a variable region of interest) allowed assessing the accuracy of our algorithm to different perturbation ranges in the system parameters and regions of interest. The algorithm achieved negligible errors ((Formula presented.)) for small Hounsfield unit (HU) perturbation ranges (–40 HU to 40 HU) and small to moderate errors (3% to 17%)–in line with the well-known limitation of adjoint approaches–for large perturbation ranges (–400 HU to 400 HU) in the case of most clinical interest where the region of interest surrounds the Bragg peak. Given these results coupled with the capability of further improving the timing performance it can be concluded that our algorithm presents a viable solution for the specific purpose of Online Adaptive Proton Therapy.
|Number of pages||41|
|Journal||Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
- Charged particle transport
- functional analysis
- numerical methods