A Facile Surface Reconstruction Mechanism toward Better Electrochemical Performance of Li4Ti5O12 in Lithium-Ion Battery

Kun Qian, Linkai Tang, Marnix Wagemaker, Yan Bing He, Dongqing Liu, Hai Li, Ruiying Shi, Baohua Li*, Feiyu Kang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
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Through a facile sodium sulfide (Na2S)-assisted hydrothermal treatment, clean and nondefective surfaces are constructed on micrometer-sized Li4Ti5O12 particles. The remarkable improvement of surface quality shows a higher first cycle Coulombic efficiency (≈95%), a significantly enhanced cycling performance, and a better rate capability in electrochemical measurements. A combined study of Raman spectroscopy and inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy reveals that the evolution of Li4Ti5O12 surface in a water-based hydrothermal environment is a hydrolysis–recrystallization process, which can introduce a new phase of anatase-TiO2. While, with a small amount of Na2S (0.004 mol L−1 at least), the spinel-Li4Ti5O12 phase is maintained without a second phase. During this process, the alkaline environment created by Na2S and the surface adsorption of the sulfur-containing group (HS or S2−) can suppress the recrystallization of anatase-TiO2 and renew the particle surfaces. This finding gives a better understanding of the surface–property relationship on Li4Ti5O12 and guidance on preparation and modification of electrode material other than coating or doping.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700205
JournalAdvanced Science Letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • hydrothermal method
  • LiTiO
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • NaS
  • surface modifications


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