Critical infrastructures are complex societal systems. For that reason, risk criteria for criticalinfrastructures are also ‘part’ of the risk criteria for complex societal systems. The questionsto be resolved are: (1) are the societal risk criteria of complex systems defined and quantifiable;and (2) is it known how the risk criteria of critical infrastructures relate to the risk criteria ofthe complex system as a whole. In other words, what certainty is there that the risk criteriaof critical infrastructures meet the risk criteria of complex systems as a whole. A complexsystem in this respect may be a society as a whole, e.g. a nation.
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