A Graphical Measure of Aggregate Flexibility for Energy-Constrained Distributed Resources

Michael Evans, Simon H. Tindemans, David Angeli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
139 Downloads (Pure)


We consider the problem of dispatching a fleet of heterogeneous energy storage units to provide grid support. Under the restriction that recharging is not possible during the time frame of interest, we develop an aggregate measure of fleet flexibility with an intuitive graphical interpretation. This analytical expression summarises the full set of demand traces that the fleet can satisfy, and can be used for immediate and straightforward determination of the feasibility of any service request. This representation therefore facilitates a wide range of capability assessments, such as flexibility comparisons between fleets or the determination of a fleet’s ability to deliver ancillary services. Examples are shown of applications to fleet flexibility comparisons, signal feasibility assessment and the optimisation of ancillary service provision.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8718814
Pages (from-to)106-117
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Distributed resources
  • energy storage systems
  • optimal control
  • aggregation
  • ancillary service


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