A High-Linearity and Low-EMI Multilevel Class-D Amplifier

Huajun Zhang, Shoubhik Karmakar, Lucien J. Breems, Quino Sandifort, Marco Berkhout, Kofi A.A. Makinwa, Qinwen Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)


This article presents a Class-D audio amplifier for automotive applications. Low electromagnetic interference (EMI) and, hence, smaller LC filter size are obtained by employing a fully differential multilevel output stage switching at 4.2 MHz. A modulation scheme with minimal switching activity at zero input reduces idle power, which is further assisted by a gate-charge reuse scheme. It also achieves high linearity due to the high loop gain realized by a third-order feedback loop with a bandwidth of 800 kHz. The prototype, fabricated in a 180-nm high-voltage BCD process, achieves a minimum THD+N of -107.8 dB/-102 dB and a peak efficiency of 91%/87% with 8- and 4-Ω loads, respectively, while drawing 7-mA quiescent current from a 14.4-V supply. The prototype meets the CISPR 25 Class 5 EMI standard with a 5.7-dB margin using an LC filter with a cutoff frequency of 580 kHz.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1176-1185
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Class-D amplifiers
  • electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  • idle power
  • multilevel
  • pulsewidth modulation (PWM).

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A High-Linearity and Low-EMI Multilevel Class-D Amplifier'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this