A Highly Linear Wideband Polar Class-E CMOS Digital Doherty Power Amplifier

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Abstract

This article presents the first application of a digital-intensive intrinsically linear digitally controlled class-E technique in a Doherty configuration. By careful nonlinear segmentation and multiphase RF-clocking along with overdrive-voltage control and automatic duty-cycle correction, it is shown that even the nonlinearities related to Doherty operation can be fully handled by the underlying design such that digital predistorion (DPD) can be, in principle, omitted. The nonlinearity behavior of the whole digital Doherty power amplifier (PA) is analyzed, and closed-form equations are given to predict the AM-AM and AM-phase modulation (PM) curves. In addition, time/phase mismatch between the peak and main branches and the AM and PM signals is accurately compensated. In order to achieve the maximum intrinsic linearity, two separate chips with the same architecture, but different design parameters, are fabricated as the main and peak amplifiers in 40-nm bulk CMOS. To achieve a large RF bandwidth and high passive combiner efficiency, a differential low-loss, wideband Marchand balun-based Doherty power combiner, implemented using reentrant coupled lines with independent second-harmonic control is proposed, and together with the matching network is fabricated on a two-layer PCB. The measured peak/6-dB power backoff P OUT, drain efficiency/power-added efficiency at 2.4 GHz are 17.5 dBm/12.2 dBm, 57%/52% and 36%/25% with VDD main/peak = 0.6 V/0.7 V. Measured results without using DPD show -41-dBc adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and -36-dB error vector magnitude (EVM) for a 16-MHz OFDM signal at 2.5 GHz. By using DPD, the measured ACPR and EVM of a 16-MHz/32-MHz OFDM signals are -52 dBc/-48 dBc and -50 dB/-48 dB, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8809722
Pages (from-to)4232-4245
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume67
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • CMOS
  • digital power amplifier (DPA)
  • digital predistortion (DPD)
  • Doherty PA
  • efficient
  • linear
  • multiphase RF-clocking
  • nonlinear sizing
  • overdrive-voltage control
  • wideband

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