In recent years, the European Union (EU) has set ambitious targets toward a carbon-free energy transition. Many studies show that a drastic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions-at least 90% by 2050-is required. In the transition toward a sustainable energy system, solar (or green) hydrogen plays many important roles, as it is a clean and safe energy carrier that can also be used as a fuel in transportation and in electricity production. To understand and steer the transition from the current energy system toward an integrated hydrogenbased energy and transport system, we propose a framework that integrates a technical and economic feasibility study, a controllability study, and institutional analysis. This framework is applied to the Car as Power Plant (CaPP) concept, which is an integrated energy and transport system. Such a system consists of a power system based on wind and solar power, conversion of renewable energy surpluses to hydrogen using electrolysis, hydrogen storage and distribution, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that provide mobility, electricity, heat, and water. Controlling these vehicles in their different roles and designing an appropriate organizational system structure are necessary steps in the feasibility study. Our proposed framework for a future 100% renewable energy system is presented through a case study.
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