A hydrogen-based integrated energy and transport system: The design and analysis of the Car as Power Plant Concept

Samira Safaei Farahani, Reinier van der Veen, Vincent Oldenbroek, Farid Alavi, Esther Park Lee, Nathan van de Wouw, Ad van Wijk, Bart De Schutter, Zofia Lukszo

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In recent years, the European Union (EU) has set ambitious targets toward a carbon-free energy transition. Many studies show that a drastic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions-at least 90% by 2050-is required. In the transition toward a sustainable energy system, solar (or green) hydrogen plays many important roles, as it is a clean and safe energy carrier that can also be used as a fuel in transportation and in electricity production. To understand and steer the transition from the current energy system toward an integrated hydrogenbased energy and transport system, we propose a framework that integrates a technical and economic feasibility study, a controllability study, and institutional analysis. This framework is applied to the Car as Power Plant (CaPP) concept, which is an integrated energy and transport system. Such a system consists of a power system based on wind and solar power, conversion of renewable energy surpluses to hydrogen using electrolysis, hydrogen storage and distribution, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that provide mobility, electricity, heat, and water. Controlling these vehicles in their different roles and designing an appropriate organizational system structure are necessary steps in the feasibility study. Our proposed framework for a future 100% renewable energy system is presented through a case study.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-50
JournalIEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Hydrogen
  • Production
  • Smart cities
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Electron tubes
  • Automobiles


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