A procedure is presented for the derivation of an effective small-strain soil stiffness governing the soil– structure interaction of large-diameter monopiles. As a first step, geophysical measurements are used to estimate the depth-dependent shear modulus G of the soil stratum. The second step is to use this modulus and an estimated Poisson’s ratio and density in a 3D model, which captures the deformation of both the monopile and the soil. As a final step, a new method is proposed to use the computed 3D response for identification of a depth dependent stiffness of an effective Winkler foundation. This stiffness can be used in a 1D model, which is more fit for design purposes. The presented procedure is deemed more appropriate than the often used ‘‘p–y curve” method, which was once calibrated for slender flexible piles and for which the input is based on the large-strain cone penetration test. The three steps are demonstrated for a particular design location. It is also shown that the displacements of the 3D model are smaller and the resulting fundamental natural frequency is higher than calculated with the p–y method.
- Offshore wind foundations
- Fundamental natural frequency
- Small-strain soil stiffness
- In-situ seismic measurement
- 3D to 1D modelling translation