A multi-frequency galileo ppp-rtk convergence analysis with an emphasis on the role of frequency spacing

Dimitrios Psychas*, Peter J.G. Teunissen, Sandra Verhagen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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The single-receiver integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant of precise point positioning (PPP), namely PPP-RTK, has proven to be crucial in reducing the long convergence time of PPP solutions through the recovery of the integerness of the user-ambiguities. The proliferation of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) supports various improvements in this regard through the availability of more satellites and frequencies. The increased availability of the Galileo E6 signal from GNSS receivers paves the way for speeding up integer ambiguity resolution, as more frequencies provide for a stronger model. In this contribution, the Galileo-based PPP-RTK ambiguity resolution and positioning convergence capabilities are studied and numerically demonstrated as a function of the number and spacing of frequencies, aiming to shed light on which frequencies should be used to obtain optimal performance. Through a formal analysis, we provide insight into the pivotal role of frequency separation in ambiguity resolution. Using real Galileo data on up to five frequencies and our estimated PPP-RTK corrections, representative kinematic user convergence results with partial ambiguity resolution are presented and discussed. Compared to the achieved performance of dual-frequency fixed solutions, it is found that the contribution of multi-frequency observations is significant and largely driven by frequency separation. When using all five available frequencies, it is shown that the kinematic user can achieve a sub-decimeter level convergence in 15.0 min (90% percentile). In our analysis, we also show to what extent the provision of the estimable satellite code biases as standard PPP-RTK corrections accelerates convergence. Finally, we numerically demonstrate that, when integrated with GPS, the kinematic user solution achieves convergence in 3.0 and 5.0 min on average and at 90%, respectively, in the presence of ionospheric delays, thereby indicating the single-receiver user’s fast-convergence capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3077
Number of pages21
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Frequency spacing
  • Galileo
  • Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR)
  • Multi-frequency
  • Precise point positioning (PPP)
  • Satellite code biases


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