A multi-level model on automated vehicle acceptance (MAVA): a review-based study

Sina Nordhoff*, Miltos Kyriakidis, Bart van Arem, Riender Happee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)
188 Downloads (Pure)


Automated vehicle acceptance (AVA) is a necessary condition for the realisation of higher-level objectives such as improvements in road safety, reductions in traffic congestion and environmental pollution. On the basis of a systematic literature review of 124 empirical studies, the present study proposes MAVA, a multi-level model to predict AVA. It incorporates a process-oriented view on AVA, considering acceptance as the result of a four-stage decision-making process that ranges from the exposure of the individual to automated vehicles (AVs) in Stage 1, the formation of favourable or unfavourable attitudes towards AVs in Stage 2, making the decision to adopt or reject AVs in Stage 3, to the implementation of AVs into practice in Stage 4. MAVA incorporates 28 acceptance factors that represent seven main acceptance classes. The acceptance factors are located at two levels, i.e., micro and meso. Factors at the micro-level constitute individual difference factors (i.e., socio-demographics, personality and travel behaviour). The meso-level captures the exposure of individuals to AVs, instrumental domain-specific, symbolic-affective and moral-normative factors of AVA. The literature review revealed that 6% of the studies investigated the exposure of individuals to AVs (i.e., knowledge and experience). 22% of the studies investigated domain-specific factors (i.e., performance and effort ­expectancy, safety, facilitating conditions, and service and vehicle ­characteristics), 4% symbolic-affective factors (i.e., hedonic motivation and social influence), and 12% moral-normative factors (i.e., perceived benefits and risks). Factors related to a person’s socio-demographic profile, travel behaviour and personality were investigated by 28%, 15% and 14% of the studies, respectively. We recommend that future studies empirically verify MAVA using longitudinal or experimental studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-710
Number of pages29
JournalTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Automated driving system (ADS)-dedicated vehicles (DVs)
  • automated public transport
  • automated vehicle acceptance
  • multi-level model
  • process-oriented view on acceptance


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