A Multiclass Classification Model for Tooth Removal Procedures

W. M. de Graaf, T. C.T. van Riet*, J. de Lange, J. Kober

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


Surprisingly little is known about tooth removal procedures. This might be due to the difficulty of gaining reliable data on these procedures. To improve our understanding of these procedures, machine learning techniques were used to design a multiclass classification model of tooth removal based on force, torque, and movement data recorded during tooth removal. A measurement setup consisting of, among others, robot technology was used to gather high-quality data on forces, torques, and movement in clinically relevant dimensions. Fresh-frozen cadavers were used to match the clinical situation as closely as possible. Clinically interpretable variables or “features” were engineered and feature selection took place to process the data. A Gaussian naive Bayes model was trained to classify tooth removal procedures. Data of 110 successful tooth removal experiments were available to train the model. Out of 75 clinically designed features, 33 were selected for the classification model. The overall accuracy of the classification model in 4 random subsamples of data was 86% in the training set and 54% in the test set. In 95% and 88%, respectively, the model correctly classified the (upper or lower) jaw and either the right class or a class of neighboring teeth. This article discusses the design and performance of a multiclass classification model for tooth removal. Despite the relatively small data set, the quality of the data was sufficient to develop a first model with reasonable performance. The results of the feature engineering, selection process, and the classification model itself can be considered a strong first step toward a better understanding of these complex procedures. It has the potential to aid in the development of evidence-based educational material and clinical guidelines in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1357-1362
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • education
  • evidence-based dentistry
  • machine learning
  • models
  • operative
  • tooth extraction


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