A new effective rate dependent damage model for dynamic tensile failure of concrete

L. F. Pereira*, J. Weerheijm, L. J. Sluys

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


From a macroscopic point of view, the dynamic tensile response of concrete is mainly due to the viscous behavior of the bulk material and inertia effects at multi-scale levels. It has been suggested that almost all of these mechanisms have to be considered as intrinsic material properties and explicitly included in the constitutive relations of the continuum model. It is discussed and demonstrated that the use of semi-empirical dynamic strength increase factor (DIF) functions to numerically describe rate effects do not characterize true constitutive relations of the material. A strain-rate dependent formulation is used to describe the strength and fracture energy increase of concrete under dynamic tensile loading conditions. However, instead of the commonly used ε̇ (instantaneous strain-rate) to update the constitutive law, an effective rate (R) is considered. With this new concept a time scale is introduced in the constitutive law which restrains the ‘evolution of rate’, to represent the inherent dynamic properties of concrete. This has a weak regularization effect and acts as a localization limiter. Mesh objectivity is recovered with the addition of a material length scale to the constitutive relations, here accomplished by an explicit stress-based nonlocal regularization scheme. Two sets of modified split Hopkinson bar tests are simulated for validation, using respectively notched and un-notched specimens. The results are objective and in good agreement with the experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-299
Number of pages19
JournalEngineering Fracture Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • Concrete
  • Damage
  • Dynamic tensile failure
  • Effective rate
  • Stress-based nonlocal


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