A new haptic shared controller reducing steering conflicts

Wietske Scholtens, Sarah Barendswaard, Daan Pool, Rene van Paassen, David Abbink

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
143 Downloads (Pure)


When drivers have opposing intentions to a haptic shared controller which, like the driver, can continuously control the vehicle through torques on the steering wheel, the driver has to fight against the controller torque to reach their goal. This phenomenon is called haptic shared control (steering) conflicts and are a reason for drivers to reject such automation. This study is the first to realise an implementation of the novel ”Four-Design-Choice-Architecture” design philosophy for shared control, hypothesized to reduce conflicts through its inherent control structure. The implemented haptic shared controller decouples reference trajectory from independent feedback and feedforward haptic control. The implemented Four-Design-Choice haptic shared controller is compared to the baseline (predecessor) Meshed haptic shared controller through a simulator experiment. The results show that the new shared controller significantly reduces occurrence of conflicts by a factor 2.3 and significantly reduces driver torque by a factor of 3.2. Analysis shows that the novel feed-forward haptic torque and a reference trajectory supporting the drivers future (curve-entry) intentions are the dominant players in conflict reduction. The findings show that the Four-Design-Choice-Architecture is proven very effective and has large potential to further reduce conflicts with different design settings.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2018)
EditorsLisa O'Conner
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ, USA
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventSMC 2018: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Myazaki, Japan
Duration: 7 Oct 201810 Oct 2018


ConferenceSMC 2018: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
Abbreviated titleSMC 2108
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • Haptic Shared Control
  • Conflicts
  • Human- Machine interaction
  • driving simulator


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