A physical description of the flow mechanisms that govern the distribution of the wall-pressure fluctuations over the surface of a serrated trailing edge is proposed. Three main mechanisms that define the variation of turbulent pressure fluctuations across the serrated edge are discussed and semi-empirical models are formulated accordingly. It is shown that the intensity of the wall-pressure fluctuations increases at the tips under the effect of an increased convective velocity as a result of sidewise momentum diffusion. Furthermore, the change of impedance across the edge causes a local reduction of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing edge. Finally, aerodynamic loading over the serrations due to the non-symmetric flow created at different angles of attack establishes secondary flow patterns that induce higher wall-pressure fluctuations over the serration edges. The latter effect is present only for serrations under high aerodynamic loading, while the former ones are observed under any conditions. Semi-empirical models are formulated for predicting the variation of the wall-pressure fluctuations over the serration surface based on the three physical mechanisms described. These models are calibrated and compared against experiments conducted on a symmetric airfoil model at high Reynolds numbers.
- hydrodynamic noise