A Power-Efficient and Safe Neural Stimulator Using Ultra-High Frequency Current Pulses for Nerve Conduction Block

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Abstract

Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) stimulation can induce fast-acting, reversible and repeatable nerve conduction block, and is a candidate therapeutic method for diseases caused by undesired neural activities, such as urinary retention. In this paper, we first show that ultra-high frequency (UHF) current pulses can also lead to successful nerve conduction block, based on simulation results using the McIntyre-Richardson-Grill (MRG) model. This model describes a myelinated axon of mammalian animals. Second, we present a prototype of a power efficient neural stimulator using UHF current pulses with active charge balancing (CB). The stimulator is built using off-the-shelf components and can be battery-powered. It uses a DC-DC boost converter without a big filtering capacitor, for generating UHF current pulses. The power efficiency of the complete system is up to 98% when testing with an equivalent circuit model of electrode tissue interface (ETI). Safety measurement results show that the electrode offset voltage can be as high as 1.3 V without charge balancing, in in vitro experiments with titanium electrodes in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. However, this electrode offset voltage can be successfully lowered to less than 42.5 mV, by means of negative-feedback duty cycle control of the H-bridge clock. The active CB is adopted for KHFAC stimulation for the first time.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - APCCAS 2019
Subtitle of host publication2019 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems: Innovative CAS Towards Sustainable Energy and Technology Disruption
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Pages397-400
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781728129402
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019
Event15th Annual IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, APCCAS 2019 - Bangkok, Thailand
Duration: 11 Nov 201914 Nov 2019

Conference

Conference15th Annual IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, APCCAS 2019
CountryThailand
CityBangkok
Period11/11/1914/11/19

Keywords

  • active charge balancing (CB)
  • DC-DC boost converter
  • nerve conduction block
  • ultra-high frequency (UHF) current pulses

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