A proper framework for studying noise from jets with non-compact sources

Woutijn J. Baars*, Nathan E. Murray, Charles E. Tinney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
36 Downloads (Pure)


A quantitative assessment of the acoustic source field produced by a laboratory-scale heated jet with a gas dynamic Mach number of 1.55 and an acoustic Mach number of 2.41 is performed using arrays of microphones that are traversed across the axial and radial plane of the jet's acoustic field. The nozzle contour comprises a method of characteristics shape so that shock-related noise is minimal and the dominant sound production mechanism is from Mach waves. The spatial topography of the overall sound pressure level is shown to be dominated by a distinct lobe residing on the principal acoustic emission path, which is expected from flows of this kind with supersonic convective acoustic Mach numbers. The sound field is then analysed on a per-frequency basis in order to identify the location, strength, convection velocity and propagation angle of the various axially distributed noise sources. The analysis reveals a collection of unique data-informed polar patterns of the sound intensity for each frequency. It is shown how these polar patterns can be propagated to any point in the far field with extreme accuracy using the inverse square law. Doing so allows one to gauge the kinds of errors that are encountered using a nozzle-centred source to calculate sound pressure spectrum levels and acoustic power. It is proposed that the measurement strategy described here be used for situations where measurements are being used to compare different facilities, for extrapolating measurements to different geometric scales, for model validation or for developing noise control strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA23
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • aeroacoustics
  • jet noise
  • supersonic flow


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