A quest for 2D lattice materials for actuation

T. N. Pronk (student), C. Ayas, C. Tekõglu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In the last two decades, most of the studies in shape morphing technology have focused on the Kagome lattice materials, which have superior properties such as in-plane isotropy, high specific stiffness and strength, and low energy requirement for actuation of its members. The Kagome lattice is a member of the family of semi-regular tessellations of the plane. Two fundamental questions naturally arise: i-) What makes a lattice material suitable for actuation? ii-) Are there other tessellations more effective than the Kagome lattice for actuation? The present paper tackles both questions, and provides a clear answer to the first one by comparing an alternative lattice material, the hexagonal cupola, with the Kagome lattice in terms of mechanical/actuation properties. The second question remains open, but, hopefully easier to challenge owing to a newly-discovered criterion: for an n-dimensional (n=2,3) in-plane isotropic lattice material to be suitable for actuation, its pin-jointed equivalent must obey the generalised Maxwell's rule, and must possess M=3(n−1) non strain-producing finite kinematic mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-216
JournalJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Actuators
  • Cellular solids
  • Finite element method
  • Lattice materials
  • Static/kinematic determinacy

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