A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields

John Warman, Thijs de Haas, Lee Luthjens, Antonia Denkova, Tiantian Yao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


We review the development and application of an organic polymer-gel capable of producing fixed, three-dimensional fluorescent images of complex radiation fields. The gel consists for more than 99% of γ-ray-polymerized (~15% conversion) tertiary-butyl acrylate (TBA) containing ~100 ppm of a fluorogenic compound, e.g., maleimido-pyrene (MPy). The radio-fluorogenic effect depends on copolymerization of the MPy into growing chains of TBA on radiation-induced polymerization. This converts the maleimido residue, which quenches the pyrene fluorescence, into a succinimido moeity (SPy), which does not. The intensity of the fluorescence is proportional to the yield of free-radicals formed and hence to the local dose deposited. Because the SPy moieties are built into the polymer network, the image is fixed. The method of preparing the gel and imaging the radiation-induced fluorescence are presented and discussed. The effect is illustrated with fluorescent images of the energy deposited in the gel by beams of X-rays, electrons, and protons as well as a radioactive isotope
Original languageEnglish
Article number685
Number of pages14
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2018


  • 3D dose imaging
  • radio-fluorogenic gel
  • polymer gel dosimetry
  • radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization
  • tertiary-butyl acrylate gel
  • proton beam imaging
  • OA-Fund TU Delft

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this