Because of the deltaic nature of the Netherlands, deep soft soil deposits are widespread. Due to the population density exploitation of underground space is vital for commercial developments and transport networks. Piles are used as primary support elements in deep excavations, cut and cover tunnels, quay walls, flood defences and to provide uplift resistance to the base of tunnels and basements. This paper examines empirical correlations linking the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) end resistance qc and the resistance of deep foundations in sand. It is found that correlations between qc and pile end resistance are independent of pile diameter. However, the impact of installation method, residual load, plugging and sand creep should be considered. In the case of shaft resistance, constant correlation factors between qc and average shaft resistance are possible for non-displacement piles. For the case of displacement piles, correlations that include the effects of friction fatigue and pile plugging during installation are recommended.
- CPT based methods
- Design codes