A risk field-based metric correlates with driver's perceived risk in manual and automated driving: A test-track study

Sarvesh Kolekar*, Bastiaan Petermeijer, Erwin Boer, Joost de Winter, David Abbink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Quantifying drivers’ perceived risk is important in the design and evaluation of the behaviour of automated vehicles (AVs) and in predicting takeovers by the driver. A ‘Driver's Risk Field’ (DRF) function has been previously shown to be able to predict manual driving behaviour in several simulated scenarios. In this paper, we tested if the DRF-based risk estimate (rˆ) could predict manual driving behaviour and the driver's perceived risk during automated driving. To ensure that the participants perceived realistic levels of risk, the experiment was conducted in a test vehicle. Eight participants drove five laps manually and experienced 12 different laps of automated driving on a test track. The test track consisted of three sections (which were sub-divided into 12 sectors): curve driving (9 sectors), parked car (1 sector), and 90-degree intersections (2 sectors). If the driver verbally expressed risk or performed a takeover, that particular sector was labelled as risky. The results show that the DRF risk estimate (rˆ) predicted manual driving behaviour (ρsteering=0.69, ρspeed=0.64), as well as correlated with the driver's perceived risk in curve driving (r2 = 0.98) and while negotiating a car parked outside the lane boundary (r2=0.59). In conclusion, the DRF-based risk estimate (rˆ) is predictive of manual driving behaviour and perceived risk in automated driving. Future research should include tactical and strategic components to the driving task.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103428
Number of pages14
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Volume133
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Driver modelling
  • Perceived risk
  • Risk estimate
  • Risk field
  • Test vehicle

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