### Abstract

Quantum computers (QC), comprising qubits and a classical controller, can provide exponential speed-up in solving certain problems. Among solid-state qubits, transmons and spin-qubits are the most promising, operating « 1K. A qubit can be implemented in a physical system with two distinct energy levels representing the |0) and |1) states, e.g. the up and down spin states of an electron. The qubit states can be manipulated with microwave pulses, whose frequency f matches the energy level spacing E = hf (Fig. 19.1.1). For transmons, f 6GHz, for spin qubits f20GHz, with the desire to lower it in the future. Qubit operations can be represented as rotations in the Bloch sphere. The rotation axis is set by the phase of the microwave signal relative to the qubit phase, which must be tracked for coherent operations. The pulse amplitude and duration determine the rotation angle. A π-rotation is typically obtained using a 50ns Gaussian pulse for transmons and a 500ns rectangular pulse for spin qubits with powers of -60dBm and -45dBm, respectively.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | 2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC 2020 |

Publisher | Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) |

Pages | 304-306 |

Number of pages | 3 |

Volume | 2020-February |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9781728132044 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2020 |

Event | 2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC 2020 - San Francisco, United States Duration: 16 Feb 2020 → 20 Feb 2020 |

### Conference

Conference | 2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC 2020 |
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Country | United States |

City | San Francisco |

Period | 16/02/20 → 20/02/20 |

## Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A Scalable Cryo-CMOS 2-to-20GHz Digitally Intensive Controller for 4×32 Frequency Multiplexed Spin Qubits/Transmons in 22nm FinFET Technology for Quantum Computers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

## Cite this

*2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC 2020*(Vol. 2020-February, pp. 304-306). [9063109] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSCC19947.2020.9063109