A Self-Matching Complementary-Reference Sensing Scheme for High-Speed and Reliable Toggle Spin Torque MRAM

Jinkai Wang, Chenyu Lian, Yining Bai, Guanda Wang, Zhizhong Zhang, Zhenyi Zheng, Kun Zhang, Sorin Cotofana, Yue Zhang*, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


While spintronic memories, for example, spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM), have shown huge potential for building next-generation memory due to their attractive characteristics, the relatively large write latency and deficient read mechanism preclude their further application for emerging concepts, such as in-memory-processing and neuromorphic computing. A toggle spin torque (TST) MRAM combining STT and spin orbit torque (SOT) has recently been proposed to alleviate the write issue. However, the sensing featuring a good balance between the reliability and speed has not been addressed. In this paper, we propose a self-matching complementary-reference (SMCR) sensing scheme, which provides not only a maximum sensing margin (SM) but also a high-speed read operation. Through applying it in the TST-MRAM, advantageous performance in terms of both write and read processes can be realized. To validate the functionality of our proposal, we design and evaluate an 8Kb TST-MRAM array, in which a read delay of 1 ns and a read bit error rate (BER) of 1.02 × 10-13 are achieved. Moreover, when being operated at 0.8 V supply voltage, it can reduce the read access energy by 7.5% and 20%, compared with conventional voltage sensing and dynamic reference sensing schemes, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9190048
Pages (from-to)4247-4258
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • MRAM
  • read bit error
  • self-matching
  • sensing margin
  • toggle spin torque


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