Monopiles are the most popular foundation for offshore wind turbines. These foundations typically have a low length to diameter ratio and undergo a rigid body rotation when subjected to lateral load. This paper presents results from an extensive numerical investigation involving 3D finite element analyses to demonstrate that the lateral moment-rotation response of a monopile in sand can be represented using a single non-linear rotational spring located at a depth of about 0.75 times the pile embedment. Expressions for the elastic rotational stiffness of a monopile under very low rotations are developed and these combined with observations from measured non-linear variations of rotational stiffness, that are supported by the numerical analyses, are used to develop a simple approximate expression that can be used to determine the response of a monopile to a monotonic lateral load in sand.
|Number of pages||14|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|
- Lateral load
- Pile-soil interaction
- Rigid pile