A single-layer approach for joint optimization of traffic signals and cooperative vehicle trajectories at isolated intersections

Meiqi Liu, Jing Zhao, Serge Hoogendoorn, Meng Wang Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


A joint control approach that simultaneously optimizes traffic signals and trajectories of cooperative (automated) vehicle platooning at urban intersections is presented in this paper. In the proposed approach, the signal phase lengths and the accelerations of the controlled platoons are optimized to maximize comfort and minimize travel delay within the signal cycle, subject to motion constraints on speeds, accelerations and safe following gaps. The red phases are initially considered as logic constraints, and then recast as several linear constraints to enable efficient solutions. The proposed approach is solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques after linearization of the objective function. The generated outputs of the MILP problem are the optimal signal timings and the optimal accelerations of all vehicles. This joint control approach is flexible in incorporating multiple platoons and traffic movements under different traffic demand levels and it does not require prespecified terminal conditions on position and speed at the signal cycle tail. The performance of the proposed control approach is verified by simulation at a standard four-arm intersection under the balanced and unbalanced vehicle arrival rates from different arms, taking the released traffic movement numbers, turning proportions, signal cycle lengths and the controlled vehicle numbers into account. The simulation results demonstrate the platoon performance of the joint controller (such as split, merge, acceleration and deceleration maneuvers) under the optimal signals. Based on the simulation results, the optimal patterns of trajectories and signals are explored, which provide insights into the optimal traffic control actions at intersections in a cooperative vehicle environment. Furthermore, the computational performance of the proposed control approach is analyzed, and the benefits of the proposed approach on the average travel delay, throughput, fuel consumption, and emission are proved by comparing with the two-layer approaches using the car following model, the signal optimization models, and the state-of-the-art approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103459
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Cooperative vehicles
  • Signal optimization
  • Trajectory planning
  • Urban intersections


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