A transient, closed-loop network of wireless, body-integrated devices for autonomous electrotherapy

Yeon Sik Choi, Hyoyoung Jeong, Rose T. Yin, Raudel Avila, Anna Pfenniger, Jaeyoung Yoo, Jong Yoon Lee, Andreas Tzavelis, Alina Y. Rwei, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Temporary postoperative cardiac pacing requires devices with percutaneous leads and external wired power and control systems. This hardware introduces risks for infection, limitations on patient mobility, and requirements for surgical extraction procedures. Bioresorbable pacemakers mitigate some of these disadvantages, but they demand pairing with external, wired systems and secondary mechanisms for control. We present a transient closed-loop system that combines a time-synchronized, wireless network of skin-integrated devices with an advanced bioresorbable pacemaker to control cardiac rhythms, track cardiopulmonary status, provide multihaptic feedback, and enable transient operation with minimal patient burden. The result provides a range of autonomous, rate-adaptive cardiac pacing capabilities, as demonstrated in rat, canine, and human heart studies. This work establishes an engineering framework for closed-loop temporary electrotherapy using wirelessly linked, body-integrated bioelectronic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1006-1012
Number of pages7
Issue number6596
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


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