Acoustic characterization of a miniature matrix transducer for pediatric 3D transesophageal echocardiography

Verya Daeichin*, Deep Bera, Shreyas Raghunathan, Maysam Shabani Motlagh, Zhao Chen, Chao Chen, Emile Noothout, Hendrik J. Vos, Michiel Pertijs, Nico de Jong, Martin Verweij, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a miniature PZT-on-CMOS matrix transducer for real-time pediatric 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This 3D TEE probe consists of a 32 × 32 array of PZT elements integrated on top of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). We propose a partitioned transmit/receive array architecture wherein the 8 × 8 transmitter elements, located at the centre of the array, are directly wired out and the remaining receive elements are grouped into 96 sub-arrays of 3 × 3 elements. The echoes received by these sub-groups are locally processed by micro-beamformer circuits in the ASIC that allow pre-steering up to ±37°. The PZT-on-CMOS matrix transducer has been characterized acoustically and has a centre frequency of 5.8 MHz, -6 dB bandwidth of 67%, a transmit efficiency of 6 kPa/V at 30 mm, and a receive dynamic range of 85 dB with minimum and maximum detectable pressures of 5 Pa and 84 kPa respectively. The properties are very suitable for a miniature pediatric real-time 3D TEE probe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2143-2154
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Accepted author manuscript


  • ASIC
  • micro-beamforming
  • pediatric matrix transducer
  • Transesophageal echocardiography
  • volumetric imaging


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