Acoustic characterization of a miniature matrix transducer for pediatric 3D transesophageal echocardiography

Verya Daeichin, Deep Bera, Shreyas Raghunathan, Maysam Shabani Motlagh, Zhao Chen, Chao Chen, Emile Noothout, Hendrik J. Vos, Michiel Pertijs, Nico de Jong, Martin Verweij, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a miniature PZT-on-CMOS matrix transducer for real-time pediatric 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This 3D TEE probe consists of a 32 × 32 array of PZT elements integrated on top of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). We propose a partitioned transmit/receive array architecture wherein the 8 × 8 transmitter elements, located at the centre of the array, are directly wired out and the remaining receive elements are grouped into 96 sub-arrays of 3 × 3 elements. The echoes received by these sub-groups are locally processed by micro-beamformer circuits in the ASIC that allow pre-steering up to ±37°. The PZT-on-CMOS matrix transducer has been characterized acoustically and has a centre frequency of 5.8 MHz, -6 dB bandwidth of 67%, a transmit efficiency of 6 kPa/V at 30 mm, and a receive dynamic range of 85 dB with minimum and maximum detectable pressures of 5 Pa and 84 kPa respectively. The properties are very suitable for a miniature pediatric real-time 3D TEE probe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2143-2154
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Accepted author manuscript


  • ASIC
  • micro-beamforming
  • pediatric matrix transducer
  • Transesophageal echocardiography
  • volumetric imaging


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