We propose and analyze a solid-state platform based on surface acoustic waves for trapping, cooling, and controlling (charged) particles, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. We develop a general theoretical framework demonstrating the emergence of effective time-independent acoustic trapping potentials for particles in two- or one-dimensional structures. As our main example, we discuss in detail the generation and applications of a stationary, but movable, acoustic pseudolattice with lattice parameters that are reconfigurable in situ. We identify the relevant figures of merit, discuss potential experimental platforms for a faithful implementation of such an acoustic lattice, and provide estimates for typical system parameters. With a projected lattice spacing on the scale of ∼100 nm, this approach allows for relatively large energy scales in the realization of fermionic Hubbard models, with the ultimate prospect of entering the low-temperature, strong interaction regime. Experimental imperfections as well as readout schemes are discussed.