Adaptive Control of HVDC Links for Frequency Stability Enhancement in Low-Inertia Systems

Jelena Stojković, Aleksandra Lekic, Predrag Stefanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Decarbonization of power systems has put Renewable Energy Sources (RES) at the forefront when it comes to electric power generation. The increasing shares of converter-connected renewable generation cause a decrease of the rotational inertia of the Electric Power System (EPS), and consequently deteriorate the system capability to withstand large load-generation imbalances. Low-inertia systems are subjected to fast and large frequency changes in case of in-feed loss, where the traditional primary frequency control is not sufficient to preserve the frequency stability and to maintain the frequency above the critical value. One possible solution to this rising problem is seen in Fast Frequency Response (FFR) provided by the High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC)-based systems. This paper presents the adaptive FFR control of HVDC-based systems for frequency stability enhancement in the low-inertia system. The EPS is considered as a “black box” and the HVDC response is determined only using the locally measured frequency change. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) was developed and demonstrated to provide faster and more appropriate frequency response compared to the PI controller. The described adaptive HVDC control considers the size of disturbance and the inertia of the power system, and it is verified by simulations on the IEEE 39 bus test system implemented in MATLAB/Simulink for different system configurations and different sizes of disturbance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6162
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Frequency control
  • HVDC-based power system
  • Low-inertia power systems
  • Modular multilevel converter


Dive into the research topics of 'Adaptive Control of HVDC Links for Frequency Stability Enhancement in Low-Inertia Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this