Rapid industrial development, vehicles, domestic activities and mishandling of garbage are the main sources of pollutants, which are destroying the atmosphere. There is a need to continuously monitor these pollutants for the safety of the environment and human beings. Conventional instruments for monitoring of toxic gases are expensive, bigger in size and time-consuming. Hybrid materials containing organic and inorganic components are considered potential candidates for diverse applications, including gas sensing. Gas sensors convert the information regarding the analyte into signals. Various polymeric/inorganic nanohybrids have been used for the sensing of toxic gases. Composites of different polymeric materials like polyaniline (PANI), poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS), poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), etc. with various metal/metal oxide nanoparticles have been reported as sensing materials for gas sensors because of their unique redox features, conductivity and facile operation at room temperature. Polymeric nanohybrids showed better performance because of the larger surface area of nanohybrids and the synergistic effect between polymeric and inorganic materials. This review article focuses on the recent developments of emerging polymeric/inorganic nanohybrids for sensing various toxic gases including ammonia, hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxides and liquefied petroleum gas. Advantages, disadvantages, operating conditions and prospects of hybrid composites have also been discussed.
- Metal oxide
- Polymeric materials