Advances of TNO's electromagnetic deformable mirror development

Stefan Kuiper, Niek Doelman, Jet Human, Rudolf Saathof, Wimar Klop, Matthew Maniscalco

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


TNO is developing Deformable Mirror (DM) technology, targeted for aberration correction in high-end Adaptive Optics (AO) applications in the field of lithography, astronomy, space and laser communication. The heart of this deformable mirror technology is a unique actuator technology based on the variable reluctance principle. The main advantages of this technology are the inherent high reliability, linearity (>99%), and high efficiency in terms of force per volume and unit power. Based on this actuator technology TNO built and tested a prototype DM, with 57 actuators, and a mirror diameter of Ø160mm. The test results show a highly linear actuator response, with less than 1% hysteresis over a stroke of 40μm. Atmospheric aberration correction has been shown with these DM's in a free space laser-communication bread board. The same actuator technology is also used in the application of a highly compact Fine Steering Mirror (FSM), with an overall volume of Ø27x30mm, with a Ø20mm mirror. This FSM is targeted for satellite-based lasercommunication terminals. Furthermore, a design study has been carried out to show the scalability of this technology towards large (~Ø1m to ~Ø3m) adaptive (secondary) mirrors with several hundreds, up to thousands of actuators. In this paper these different DM and FSM's are discussed, and the latest test results obtained with the DM prototypes are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation III
EditorsRoland Geyl, Ramon Navarro
ISBN (Print)9781510619654
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
EventAdvances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation III 2018 - Austin, United States
Duration: 10 Jun 201815 Jun 2018

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceAdvances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation III 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Adaptive optics
  • Adaptive secondary
  • Deformable mirror
  • Fine steering mirror
  • Linear actuators


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