Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

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The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they are able to quickly control their active power using electronic power converters. However, to evaluate the impact of PEVs on PFC, one should either carry out complex and time consuming simulation involving a large number of PEVs or formulate and develop aggregate models which could efficiently reduce simulation complexity and time while maintaining accuracy.
This thesis proposes aggregate models of PEVs for PFC. The final aggregate model has been developed gradually through the following steps. First of all, an aggregate model of PEVs for the PFC has been developed where various technical characteristics of PEVs such as operating modes (i.e., idle, disconnected, and charging) and PEV’s state of charge have been formulated and incorporated. Secondly, some technical characteristics of distribution networks have been added to the previous aggregate model of PEVs for the PFC. For this purpose, the power consumed in the network during PFC as well as the maximum allowed current of the lines and transformers have been taken into account. Thirdly, the frequency stability margins of power systems including PEVs have been evaluated and a strategy to design the frequency-droop controller of PEVs for PFC has been described. The controller designed guaranties similar stability margins, in the worst case scenario, to those of the system without PEVs. Finally, a method to evaluate the positive economic impact of PEVs participation in PFC has been proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • Herder, P.M., Supervisor
  • Garcia-Gonzalez, Pablo, Supervisor, External person
Award date13 Jun 2017
Print ISBNs978-84-617-9946-6
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

The doctoral research has been carried out in the context of an agreement on joint doctoral supervision between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Universidad Pontifical de Comillas, Madrid, Spain and Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Erasmus Mundus Sustainable Energy Technologies and Strategies (SETS) joint-doctorate programme.

Thesis advisors at TU Delft:
1. Pavol Bauer
2. Laura Ramírez Elizondo


  • Aggregation
  • Plug-in Electric Vehicles
  • Primary Frequency Control


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