In this paper, we introduce an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) for Bluetooth low energy (BLE) that eliminates the need for a crystal oscillator (XO) other than a 32.768-kHz real-time clock (RTC) already present in wireless systems. Specifically, we propose to replace the conventional channel settling with a band settling that would be carried out only once per global device power up. The ADPLL locks to the center of the Bluetooth band (2440 MHz) upon system power-up and jointly performs an instantaneous channel hopping and Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) modulation in a two-point manner to overcome the narrow PLL bandwidth (BW) due to the 32.768-kHz reference. Extensive calibrations linearize the effective cubic digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) transfer function to achieve a precise frequency range of hopping and modulation. Realized in 16-nm FinFET, it consumes <1 mW at ≤0.45 V, while achieving best-in-class performance and <100-ns hopping time.
- All-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL)
- Bluetooth low energy (BLE)
- channel hopping
- digitally controlled oscillator (DCO)
- real-time clock (RTC)
- voltage doubler