An 18.5 W Fully-Digital Transmitter with 60.4 % Peak System Efficiency

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


A high-power digital transmitter (DTX) concept, targeting future low-cost, highly-integrated and energy-efficient mMIMO base stations, is presented. The proposed approach bridges the 'historical' gap between low-voltage high-speed digital and high-voltage high-power RF devices. The resulting combination allows for a complete replacement of the traditional TX line-up, which includes signal-generation, up-conversion, and analog pre-drivers and power amplifier (PA), as such, facilitating drastic energy savings. The DTX principles are demonstrated by a dual TX line-up implemented in a dedicated VT-shifted LDMOS technology. Each 11-bit DTX line-up features 15 thermometer and 7 binary-weighted LDMOS output-stage segments, which are individually controlled by digital logic and high-speed drivers implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. The realized DTX prototype exploits a 2.1 GHz centered class-BE output matching network and provides, at 20 V drain supply, 18.5 W (CW) output power with 66.7 % drain and 60.4 % system efficiencies. The suitability of the concept to handle modulated signals is demonstrated for a two-tone signal (Δf = 80 kHz), yielding an 1M3 < -51.4dBc and a 10MHz 256-QAM signal, achieving an ACLR of -46.1 dBc and 1.2 % EVM.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS)
Place of PublicationLos Angeles, CA, USA, USA
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-6815-9
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-6816-6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020
EventIMS 2020: International Microwave Symposium - Los Angeles, United States
Duration: 21 Jun 202026 Jun 2020


ConferenceIMS 2020: International Microwave Symposium
Abbreviated titleIMS 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLos Angeles

Bibliographical note

Virtual/online event due to COVID-19


  • digital transmitter
  • polar transmitter
  • digital pre-distortion (DPD)
  • power RFDAC
  • digital power amplifier
  • efficiency


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