An Accurate BJT-Based CMOS Temperature Sensor With Duty-Cycle-Modulated Output

Guijie Wang, Ali Heidari, Kofi Makinwa, Gerard Meijer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
191 Downloads (Pure)


This paper describes the design of a precision bipolar junction transistor based temperature sensor implemented in standard 0.7-μmCMOS technology. It employs substrate p-n-ps as sensing elements,which makes it insensitive
to the effects of mechanical (packaging) stress and facilitates the use of low-cost packaging technologies. The sensor outputs a duty-cycle-modulated signal, which can easily be interfaced to the digital world and, after low-pass filtering, to the analog world. In order to eliminate the errors caused by the component mismatch, chopping and dynamic element matching (DEM) techniques have been applied. The required component shuffling was done concurrently rather than sequentially, resulting in a fast DEM scheme that saves energy without degrading accuracy. After a singletemperature trim, the sensor’s inaccuracy is ±0.1 °C (−20 to 60 °C) and ±0.3 °C (−45 to 130 °C), respectively. Measurements of sensors in different packages show that the package-induced shift is less than 0.1 °C. Measurements of eight sensors over 367 days show that their output drift is less than 6 mK. While dissipating only 200 μW, the sensor achieves a resolution of 3 mK (rms) in a 1.8-ms measurement time, and a state-of-the-art resolution figure of merit of 3.2 pJK2. This combination of high accuracy, high resolution, high speed, and low-energy consumption makes this sensor suited for commercial and industrial applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1572-1580
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Accepted author manuscript


  • one-point trim
  • Chopping
  • CMOS temperature sensor
  • duty-cycle modulation
  • dynamic element matching (DEM)


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