An Adaptive Battery Charging Method for the Electrification of Diesel or CNG Buses as In-Motion-Charging Trolleybuses

Ibrahim Diab*, Rik Eggermont, Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli, Pavol Bauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


The decarbonization of urban bus fleets can be made by their electrification as in-motion-charging (IMC) buses which can run as trolleybuses or in battery mode. The benefit is that IMC buses can use the existing trolleygrid infrastructure where their route overlaps with it to charge the battery and operate in battery mode outside of it. Presently, the IMC battery charging power is set conservatively to the minimum of all the spare capacities of the traction substations (SSs) found along the bus route. This can render most electrification projects techno/economically infeasible as not enough energy is picked up for the battery-mode operation and long charging times at bus terminals are required. This article proposes then an adaptive charging approach that uses the locally available spare capacity under any traction SS, taking into account the limitations of the maximum SS power and the minimum line voltage. The method is proven here both theoretically and in a case study over one full year of operation of four electrified diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG) bus lines in Arnhem, The Netherlands, using comprehensive and verified trolleybus and trolleygrid models. The proposed adaptive charging method, as opposed to the present conservative method (here, Regular Charging), is shown to make one bus electrification project completely feasible and reduce the extra terminal charging time for the other lines by up to 64%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4531-4540
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Batteries
  • Substations
  • Voltage
  • Urban areas
  • Transportation
  • Rectifiers
  • Random access memory


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