An aircraft seat discomfort scale using item response theory

Lizandra da Silva Menegon, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi, Dalton Francisco de Andrade, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Peter Vink, Eugenio Andres Diaz Merino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study is to construct an aircraft seat discomfort scale and verify the evidence of its validity and reliability. We developed a questionnaire and presented it to 1500 Brazilian passengers at an airport. The data analysis included: 1) factor analysis; 2) the analysis of the items to be used in the scale created using Item Response Theory. The scale covered all levels, from “without discomfort” to “maximum discomfort”. At the level of minimal, a passenger feels that the aircraft seat is cramped and has little space. Discomfort tends to increase when passengers are unable to perform desired activities (eg: reading, sleeping), which causes irritation and disappointment. The maximum discomfort level occurs when noise disrupts activities and an aircraft seat is considered hard. The scale developed presented indications that it is reliable and valid, proving to be a useful tool for identifying levels of discomfort in aircraft seats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Aircraft seat
  • Discomfort
  • Item response theory
  • Scale


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