This study focuses upon a new permeable topology design concept as an alternative to porous metal foams, for turbulent boundary layer trailing-edge (TBL-TE) noise attenuation. The present permeable topology has unconventional characteristics with respect to the metal foams: a combination of low flow resistivity r and high form drag coefficient C. The unconventional characteristics are realized by a Kevlar-covered 3D-printed perforated structure. An experimental study featuring a NACA 0018 airfoil model with a Kevlar-covered 3D-printed TE insert at chord-based Reynolds numbers up to (Formula presented.) is carried out. The airfoil with this TE insert gives a broadband TBL-TE noise reduction up to approximately 5 dB, compared to a solid TE. This reduction varies only slightly with airfoil loading (lower than 1 dB variation), in contrast to the porous metal foams (up to 3 dB variation). When comparing the variation of noise attenuation given by all the permeable materials considered, the variation is found to decrease with the increasing C. This is because C specifies the permeable material's ability to withstand the increasing pressure difference, which causes cross flow that might interfere with the noise attenuation mechanism. Additionally, the drag coefficients as well as the roughness noise of the airfoil equipped with the present TE insert are also significantly lower than those of the metal-foam TE, and are mostly negligible compared to the fully solid airfoil. Based on the findings, design guidelines for permeable TE are proposed: the permeable material shall have a combination of a low flow resistivity and a high form drag coefficient as well as a negligible surface roughness.
- Permeable materials
- turbulent boundary layer trailing-edge (TBL-TE) noise
- noise reduction
- 3D printing